|Credit hours||Academic Semester||Academic year||Course name|
|4hr||1st||3rd||Basics of Animal Nutrition|
|4hr||1st||3rd||Irrigated forage and pasture|
|5hr||2nd||First||Introduction to animal production and behavior|
|3hr||2nd||2nd||Natural range management|
|3hr||2nd||3rd||Mono gastric nutrition|
* Beside 7practcals for that Course
1) Introduction to Biochemistry:-
1-Carbohydrate chemistry Monosaccharide’s, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides: nomenclature, classification stereo chemical structure, general reactions and functions.
2-Lipids fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes, steroids, terpenes, alkaloids: nomenclature, classification, structure, general reactions and functions.
3-Proteins Amino acids, nomenclature, classification, structure, general reaction and functions. The nature of primary, secondary, tertiary and uaternary protein structure protein purification and sequencing techniques.
4-Nucleic acid classification, structure, general reactions and functions energetic compounds.
5-Enzymes classification, structure and general function. Michaelis-Mento theory and line weaver-Burke plots. Molecular mechanisms of enzymatic action. Allosteric actions.
- Lab safety and equipments
- Chemistry of carbohydrate(solubility,molishs test, antrhone reaction)
- Reducing sugar (Fehling’s test, bendicts test.
- Aniline acetate test pentosessccharides.)(Barfoeds test monosaccharide’s)
- Tollen’s Test seliwanoffs Test (ketones sugar)
- Osazones formation H2SO4 Test.
- Iodine Test hydrolysis of polysaccharides (polysaccharides sugar).
- Chemistry of lipids (solubility test)
- Test of the presence of unsaturated fatty acid
- Test for the presence of cholesterol,acroliun test
- Test for the presence of phospholipids
- Saponification, Saponification value (SV) IV Iodine number, Acid Value
- Chemistry of protein(borate test, Ninhydrine reaction
- Alcohol precipitation of protein
- Heller’s Test, precipitation of proteins by Nitric acid
- Coagulation of proteins by heat, xanthoprotic test
- Arginine test, Hopkins-Cole test
- Enzymes (Lactic Dehydrogenase, Rennin, Salivary Amylase, Oxidase).
- Vitamins (oxidation of vitamin C).
2) Nutrition of Mono gastric Animals:-
Nature of digestive system of mono gastric animal and its effect on the tyre of feed.
Characteristic of feed to mono gastric animals e.g. Nutrition of poultry- poultry feed, chemical analysis of the feed.
Energy and protein source minerals and Vitamins source Non-nutritive of feed additive. Nutritional disorder associated with nutrient deficiency.
Methods of feed evaluation
Nutritive value assessment of energy and protein.
Methods of ration formulation
- Dissection of digestive system of chicks and rabbits.
- Type of animal feed e.g. protein energy concentrates
-Minerals and Vitamins source
- Methods of ration formulation.
- Calculation of balanced ration
- Calculation of balanced ration
- Animals feed processing
3) Principles in Animal Nutrition:-
• -Introductions, composition of plant.
• -Water, Carbohydrates, Fat, proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Non-nutritive feed additives, growth
• -Digestive anatomy and secretions, physiology; pigs, birds, Ruminant and Herbivore anatomy and
• -Feedstuff analysis and evaluation.
• -Feed classification (concentrates: cereal grains, by-product feeds. Concentrates: protein feeds, miscellaneous)
• -Balancing rations, principles.
• -Forages: Grasses, legumes, Residue feeds. Forages harvest forms; pasture, hay, silage.
-Feeding poultry, Feeding Beef cattle, Feeding dairy cattle, Feeding sheep, and Special things about the nutrition of pets.
• Lab equipment
• Moisture & DM
• CP & NPN
• Lignin silica
4) Natural Range Management :( 2+1) 3hours:-
• Definition of range management
• Range land in the world
• Range land in Sudan
• Vegetation sampling technique
• Range inventory and utilization
• Grazing systems
• Range utilization
• Range improvement
• Pastoralist and pastoral settlement
• Methods of plant density estimation in the pasture (quadrate method , step point method , diagram method)
• Range condition analysis
• Plant herbarium establishment’s Methods
• Carrying capacity estimation
• Study different types of plants which grazing
5) Irrigated forage and pasture:-
• Importance of green forage crops
• Role of forage crops in soil maintenance.
• Constrains of forage crop production in Sudan.
• In corporate animal in crop cycles.
• Classification of forage crops.
• Physiology of forage crops (light energy, heat humidity effect of cutting on carbohydrate storage.)
• Quality of forage crops (chemical composition and nutritive value.)
• Deterioration of feeding value of forage crop (effect of time of harvesting on chemical composition).
• Principles of forage crops cultivation (land preparation, fertilization irrigation, harvesting).
• Detailed study on forage crop grass and legumes.
• Introduction and study the equipment.
• Study the germination percentage in the lab.
• Land preparation
• Study the botanical description for most of the forage plants.
• Grow some illustration plots for the forage crops.
• Conduct full experiment for one selected forage crop.
6) An Introduction to Animal Production:-
• Distribution of Farm animal according to the geographic environment of Sudan.
• Study of types, breeds, method of rearing, breeding and feeding of dairy cattle beef and camels and smell ruminants, poultry and rabbits.
• Restraint and handling of animals for different purposes.
• Methods of Identification and marketing of animals the use of computers and other
• Method in recording, feeding and management of animal.
Very practical classes all in University Farm plus multi media, Videos, Slides. 7) Ruminant Nutrition:-
• Digestion physiology – digestive system and rumen microbes.
• Feed functions.
• Feed kinds.
• The requirements for all animals according to the physiological status.
• Feed preparing.