Undergraduate Programs.Meat

1.     Functional Anatomy

2.     Farm Buildings and Equipment

3.     Meat Production

4.     Fish Production

5.     Skin &Hide Production &Animal by-Products

6.     Principles of Agricultural Economics and Marketing

7.     Meat Science 

8.     Meat Technology

The Academic Courses for the Undergraduate B.Sc. of Animal Production

Subject Year Semester Hours of Connection Credit Hours



Functional Anatomy First Second 2 2 3
Farm Buildings and Equipment Third First 2 2 3
Meat Production Fourth Second 3 2 4
Fish Production Fourth Second 2 2 3
Principl of Agricultural Economics &Marketing Fourth First 5 0 5
Skin&HideProduction & Animal by-Products Fourth Second 3 2 4
Meat Science Fifth First 2 2 4
Meat Technology Fifth Second 2 2 3

1.        Functional Anatomy

        SAD 110

·                Functions and divisions of the digestive system.

·                Ruminants and nonruminants digesive systems.

·                Relative development of various segments.

·                Avian digestive system.

·                Feastures and functions of the reproductive system.

·                Morphological changes at puberty.

·                The skeletal system.

·                Major groups of muscles in trucnk and limbs.

·                Functions of the skin and skin glands.

·                Regional characteristics of the skin.

·                The mammary glands.

·                The lymphatic in lyglands endocrise glands.

2.        Fisheries Science


·                Fish biology and  physiology.

·                Capture fisheries

·                Limnology.

·                Aquaculture.

·                Fish pathobiology.

·                Fish technology.

3.        Beef Production


·                Growth and development of  meat aniamls and factors.

·                Affecting them.

·                Beef cattle breeds.

·                Beef production systems.

·                Problems of beef production in Sudan.

·                Transportation of animals< cattle routes and discease free zones.

·                Nutritional requirements of beef cattle.

·                Live animal evaluation and asessement of degree of finish.

·                Classes and grades of beef.

·                Feed-lot facilities.

4.        Meat Science


·                Structure, composition and nutritive value of muscles and associated tissues.

·                Anatomical, Biochemical, Histological and Physical.

·                Factors associated with transformation of muscle into meat .

·                Meat inspection and hygiene.

·                Cooking methods and palatability.

·                Microbiology, contamination and deterioration of meat.

·                Storage and preservation of meat.

·                Principles of meat processing.

·                Meat by-product.

·                Live Animal and  caracass Evaluation

·                Introduction to evaluation.

·                Live cattle evaluation and grading.

·                Visual evaluation of breeding beef cattle.

·                Live lamb evaluation and grading.

·                Visual evaluation of breeding sheep.

·                Performance data.

·                Slaughter and dressing of meat animals.

·                Beef, Lamb and goat carcss evaluation and grading.

·                Carcass fabrieation and cutting whole sale and retail pricing of meat.

5.        Principles of Agricultural Economics and Marketing

        SAD 405

·                Use of computer in live stock farm management.

·                Basic principles of national income.

·                Introduction to price theory.

·                Supply, demand production theory.

·                Theory of consumer behavior.

·                Perfect and imperfect competition.

·                Combination of resoures and enterprises.

·                Basic concepts marketing.

·                Demand and supply analysis.

·                Markets and the general system of marketing.

·                Marketing functions.

·                Marketing costs and margins

·                The role of government in marketing

·                Co-operative marketing.

·                Marketing boards..

·                Livestock market in Sudan

6.        Farm Management

*  Introduction and definations.

*  Evaluation of livestock in the farm for book keeping.

*  Analysis of the farm business with special reference to livestock.

*  Organization and planning of livestock farms.

*  Use – computer in mamagement of livestock farms.

*  Farm records and recording for livestock.

*  Livestock enterprise studies for management purposes.

·                A detailed example for starting a new livestock farm.

7.        Leather Production and Animal By-product


·    -Hide and skin production        

-    usage of leather – Econoimc value –Sources and types of hide  and skin.

-    Anatomical and histological structure of skin – physical prperties of skin.

-    Methods of skins and hides production ( Slaughter – Bleading – Flaying Washing -  Fleshing – Trimming)

-    Damages and defects of hides and skin (Damages while the animal living - Damaege  following death- during storage and transport.

-    Methods of preservation of hides and skin – Folding-Baling-Transport.

-    Sorting and grading of shides and skins.

-    Camel hides (Flaying-Preparation-Tanning).

-    Game animal skins (Flaying-Preparation-Tanning).

Leather technology

-    Beaum house operations-tannage materials-tannage materials – tannery operations).

·                Finishing operations.

·                Chamical analysis and physis and physical tests of finished leather

·                Properties of natural and synthetic leather in the industry.

·                Problems of leather production and improvement of hides and skins

·                Live stock by-products

·                Nature of livestock by-products                

_   Economic value

_   Usage and Manufacturing

_   Impact on environment

·     Sources livestock by – products

_      Slaughtering by-products and meat processing

_      Contents of Rumen and Intestines

_      Tanning by-products

_      Poultry by-products

·   Classification of livestock by-products (Blood- meat – Bones – Fats and Oils – endocine glands – hair).

·   Ways of collection

·   Ways of processing- General principle -Meat processing – Blood – Fats –Drying - Normal cooking- Steam

_      Animal feed

_      Oils, Soaps and Gelesrine_ Gelatine _ Cosmeticsies –fancy goods

_      Biogas

_      Problems of collection and processing of livestock by-products in Sudan.

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