Undergraduate Programs .Genetics

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Courses and Semesters

Course Name Academic Year Academic Semester Credit hours
General Statistics first 2nd  4
Basic Genetics & molecular genetic 2nd  1st 4
Quantitative Genetics 3rd 1st  3
Principles of Animal Breeding 3rd


Wildlife Management 3rd 2nd 3
Experimental Design and Analysis 4th  2nd 3

Courses detail and descriptions

1. Principles  of Animal Breeding    

Course Objectives:

Traditionally, most Animal Science Students have had only a minimum of exposure to various concepts of animal breeding by the time they have fulfilled all requirements for graduation.

Although most students probably are introduced to certain aspects of animal breeding in their beginning genetics course, a more detailed exposure is desirable because of the value that animal breeding can be to the students not only for class work but also after graduation.

This course aimed at:

1- To review basic genetic principles and their application to improvement of livestock.

2- To introduce the students to the nature of biological variation and procedure for measuring this variation.

3- To study aids to selection and selection procedures applicable to genetic improvement of livestock. 

4-To study systems of mating and their expected consequences when used for genetic improvement of livestock.

5- To identify traits considered to be of economic importance in the livestock industry as well as methods of measuring these traits.

Course contents:

1- Qualitative and quantitative traits

       * Breeding approaches for qualitative versus quantitative traits

2-  Selection

         * Simple one locus case

               a- Phenotypic and within family selection

               b- Selection for qualitative traits

               c- Between breed selections

         * Multiple traits selection

               a- Tandom selection

               b- Independent culling levels

               c- Selection index

         * Selection intensity and multiple traits selection

                - Loss of selection intensity and correlation between traits 

3- Mating systems

         * Mating systems based on animal performance

               a- Random mating

               b- Assortative mating

         * Mating systems based on pedigree relationship

               (a) Inbreeding

                           i- Effects of inbreeding

                            ii- Line-breeding

                             iii- Reasons to inbreed

2. Quantitative Genetics Course

Learning outcome:

It is expected that student after taking the course will be able to:

1-Demonstrates basic knowledge, understands the stochastic and deterministic processes that form and change the genetic composition of population

2- Show certain capability to use the kind of genetic methods used in population genetics, evolutionary genetics, and for the analysis of quantitative characters.

3-Understand the meaning of basic concepts concerning the genetic of population.

4-Be able to understand the significance of genetics for research and practice of animal breeding and animal production generally, as well as for management of natural resources.

Course content:

1- Gene and genotypic frequency, hardy Weinberg law

 2- Forces changing gene frequency: 

a - Natural selection as process, models, of selection, selection against genes at different states of dominance

b- Mutation

c- Gene flow

d- Random drift and small populations, founder effect, bottle necks

e - Effective population size  , Wright inbreeding coefficient , F, Fst ,Ft

f -Genetic and phenotypic consequences of inbreeding

g- Balance of evolutionary forces

3- Polymorphisms at the phenotypic and molecular level, selections and neutral theory

4-Quantitative Vs qualitative traits

5- Partitioning of phenotypic value:

a- Population

b- Average effects of gene

c- Average effect of gene substitution 

d- Additive, dominance and epistemic deviations.

6-Paritioning of variation: causal and functional

7- Genetic parameters

a- Repeatability

b- Heritability

8- Resemblance between relatives:

9- Genetic and phenotypic correlations

Course Work:

 Students will be required to complete problem sets , and prepare for participate in class discussion     

3. Experimental Design and Analysis

Objectives of cours

1-To develop the abilities of the students to be able to design simple and useful experiment

2- To enhance the students' abilities in the field of analysis and be able to understand computer


Review of statistics: Measurement of central tendency, measures of dispersion

The variation: addition and multiplication rules, variance of means, of the difference between means, the stander error   statistical hypothesis, type one type 2 error  

Testing of hypothesis: t-test, comparisons of two random samples comparison of paired samples, the general one way analysis of variance.

 Types of experiments, experimental error, sources and methods of control, importance of replication and  randomization, experimental and sampling units-sampling and sampling size, factors affecting number of replicates

The completely randomized design (CRD):

Advantage, disadvantage, uses, and randomization of treatments and analysis 

The completely randomized block design (RCBD): advantage, disadvantage, uses .randomization of blocks and treatments within blocks and analysis of results double blocking, Latin squares and cross over designs

Chi- square and other non parametric methods

   Factorial arrangement of treatments, interaction, CRD and RCBD Factorial experiment

 Linear regression: The least squares theory for estimation of b, the prediction equation, analysis of variance

 Split plot design: Advantages, disadvantage uses. Randomization and analysis


1-Problem solving and class discussion 6 practical session

2-Data entry and use of MINITAB statistical package

3 -Data entry use of SPSS statistical package

4- Basic Genetics and Molecular Genetics
The course material has been designed to describe inheritance and introduce the student to the basic concepts of genetics it include material from both classical and current recent genetics the course material is divided in two parts .the first part of the course covers the basic principles of classical (mendelian) genetics .while the second part of the course well deal with the modern discoveries of molecular biology and their application in today's world.


The objectives of the course are meant to:

1-explian the principles of the classical part of genetics and how it relates to modern genetics

2-To  provide students with an analytical ability to solve genetics problems. To understand genetics and develop skills .you need to solve.

3-to help the students to understand the terminology of genetics and genetics technology.

4-describe how biotechnology is reflected on genetic innovations.

5-explian the central dogma of molecular genetics

6- Acquire and reinforce new skills in modern genetics and biology. 

Course structure
This course will include 3 hours of lecture and one hour laboratory per week.
Lecture part:

This part will provide the student with the theoretical background and prepare him to accept the logical part of the subject matter special explaining will paid to the laws and regulation and the logical part of the driving formulae and solving problems.

subject material
Introduction of basic concepts of genetics
The cell cycle
Concepts of cell division and chromosomes
Mendel experiments and genetic terminology
Mendel first law the law of segregation /the monohybrid cross.
Mendel second low the law of independent assortment the dihybrid
Mendelian genetics problems

Principles of probability
Sex inheritance –sex determination
SEX linkage dosage compensation
Sex influenced traits ,sex limited traits
Crossing over and linkage
Karyotyping and chromosome variation
Chromosome mapping

Organic molecules structure and function
DNA structure and organization
DNA function
Protein structure and enzymes
DNA transcription and RNA
DNA replication
DNA translation
DNA transformation
Gene recombination
Gene regulation
The genetic code 1
The genetic code 2
DNA finger printing
Cancer genetics1
Cancer genetic 2
Genetic control of development
Cloning and plasmids
Genetics of immunity1
Genetic of immunity2
Bacterial genetics
Viral genetics
Genetic control of development
Application of recombinant DNA technology
Application of recombinant DNA technology
The implication of genetic on animal production

5 General statistics


This course provides general introduction to probability and statistics for students of the faculty of animal production and other non-math disciplines .an indirect goal of course is to put special emphasis on analysis using computer to analyzed and interpret the statistics encountered in different fields of animal production field. Lecture topics will include descriptive statistics, probability distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and linear correlation and regression.

Course content:

The material is combination of theory and calculation, and it is necessary to understand theory in order to do sensible calculations and interpret them correctly

Introduction: frequency distributions, graphs stem and leaf plot

Types of variables:

Measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode   , midrange

Measures of variation range   variance stander deviation.

Box plots.

Introduction to probability

Sample spaces, Tree diagrams .independent and mutually exclusive events.

Conditional probability.

Random variables .discrete random variable

Binomial distribution, normal distribution, differences between means

Central limit theorem, chi and t-test

. Linear correlation /regression

6.Wildlife Management

Theoretical part :


1-   History, development and concept

- Definition of pertinent terms  wildlife, wildlife management, wildlife conservation, home range, territory riche habitat, riche counterparts, ecological equivalents, dispersal and population

2-   Wildlife values

-  Biological, philosophical, social

-  Recreational, economical, esthetic

-   Negative values (causes and consequences)

3 - Basic requirement among and within spices

-  Food as variable requirement among and with in species

- Water requirement, water economy by animal in dry areas, variability of water consumption and loss among and with in species

 4- Cover: definition, type's variation among and within species

5- Population dynamic:

- System of wildlife distribution in spaces.

- Population growth rate and factors suppressing the rate of growth (starvation –hunting, accidents, predation, inclement water and diseases)

- Methods of estimating population size surveys

6- The diversity of wildlife species in the Sudan and their distribution

- Wildlife of desert and semi desert areas

- Animal and habitats of low rainfall savanna

- Animal of high rainfall savanna.

- Animal species of March regions.

Animal of equatorial regions

- Wildlife of mountain areas

7- Wildlife distribution in protected areas:

-Historical background

-National barks (terrestrial and marine)

- Game reserved areas

- Game sanctuaries

- Game farming and game ranching in the Sudan

Wildlife rules and regulation

The practical :

1-Short visits to familiarization the student with wildlife incapacity conditions

- Game farm (south of Khartoum town) where the dorcas gazelle (gazella dorcas )

-  Game farm (west of omdurman town) wher dorcas gazelle (gazella dorcas ) and red fronted gazelle (gazella sommeringi)are kept under captive conditions

- Khartoum zoo garden where most of Sudan wildlife species are represented.

2-  A journey (15 days approximately) to the Dinder National Park (Blue Nile state) for the students to be aquatinted with animals in their natural habitats


The students are directed to submit written reports for the visits and the journey

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