Mammary gland types and development
Hormonal control of mammary gland development
Stages of M.G. development (puberty- pregnancy – lactation)
Hormonal control of milk- let-down
Control of initiation, maintenance and cessation of lactation
Hormonal and nutrient in milk production
Milk precursor and synthesis of milk constituent
Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, protein, and fat
The functional anatomy of the mammary secretary cell, function of different organelle
The udder development, supportive, structure, Blood supply – nervous and lymphatic systems
Lactation curve and persistency
Milking programs and concept of machine milking in dairy cattle
Artificial induction of lactation
· Functional anatomy of female Rep. System- prenatal and post natal development of the Rep. organs and their specific sexual functions
· Endocrinology of Rep. in the female
· Hypophysial hormones - Gonadal steroid hormones and placental hormones – their chemical structures - functions and mechanism of action
· Prostaglandins and synthetic hormones
· Hormonal interrlationships
· Neuro endocrinology of Reproduction- Hypothalamus neurohypophysis and pineal gland
· Reproductive life cycles - fetal and neonatal
Puberty – adult sexuality – aging and fertility
· Follicuogenesis egg- maturation and ovulation
· Transport and survival of gametes – sperm transport in the female reproductive tract – ova pickup and their transport in the oviduct
· Gamete transport – conception rate – fertilizable life and aging of egg
· Embryonic development in the Ovid duct
· Fertilization – cleavage and implantation
· Gestation – maternal physiology
· Reproductive cycles in cattle – sheep – goats –camels and horses
· Post-partum period management
· Reproductive failures
· Reproduction efficiency and techniques for its improvement
· Male reproduction aspects – spermatogenesis and sperm cap citation
· Functional anatomy of testis and thermo-regulatory mechanism
· Biotechnology in reproduction
Principles of Dairy Science
Course objectives: To introduce the fundamentals of dairy chemistry to students and to acquire laboratory skills.
1- Definition of milk.
2- Composition of milk from deferent species (detailed composition of milk proteins, lipids, lactose vitamins and enzymes).
3- Food value of dairy products.
4- Factors influencing milk composition.
5- Physicochemical properties of milk.
6- Sampling and control of milk supply- rejection and routine biological grading tests.
7-Laboratory milk and dairy products tests.
8- Dairy microbiology.
9- Control of milk supplies Tests of adulteration.
1-Physical properties of milk (colour, refractive index, specific gravity ( density).
2-Chemical composition ( protein, lactose, lipids, total solids, Ash).
3-Control of milk supply tests (sensory, pH, 10 minute resazurin, rapid acidity, sediment, alcohol, clot- on- boiling, titratable acidity).
4-Biological grading tests (Methylene blue,2 hr resazurin, plate count, microscopic count and Psychrotropic count).
5-Tests of adulteration (freezing point depression, formaldehyde , boric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, Iodophors, Lime Ca(OH), Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate).
Dairy Technology (502)
Course objectives: To provide students with the key knowledge and practical skills in dairy processing.
1- Milk production and processing in Sudan.
2- Dairy plant design, facilities and layout.
3- Milk handling in dairy plant( Reception, filtration, clarification, bactofugation homogenization and separation, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis).
4- Heat treatment of milk.
5- Equipment used to handle, process and distribute fluid milk and related dairy products.
7-Dairy products processing (Cheese, cream, butter, yoghurt,
Ice milk products).
7-Sudanese fermented dairy products.
8- Cleaning and sanitization of dairy product (principles, practices and properties of detergents and sanitization).
9- The importance of water supply of dairy plant in personal hygiene and dairy plant environment.
10-Packaging and handling of dairy products.
1- Dairy plant visits (dairy plant design, facilities, layout).
Dairy plant sanitization, processing's (homogenization cream
separation, pasteurization, sterilization).
2 - Dairy processing (Cream, butter, cheese and yoghurt, ice cream).
Quality Control of Dairy Products
*Current methods used to evaluate
Dairy products with respect to plant economics and consumer safety
* Accurate procedure for chemical and biological testing
* Statistical approach to sampling
* HACCP concept
* Interpretation of HACCP programs for assuring product quality and safety
*Quality systems standards including ISO
* Good laboratory practice safety and precaution
1. Sampling and preservation of milk for chemical and physical examination
2. Detection of preservatives in milk
3. Estimation of microbes in milk
4. Microbiological quality tests
5. Cleaning and sterilization of dairy equipment
6. Visit to milk products factory
7. Visit to farms
1. Types of microorganisms present in milk
2. Microbial standards of raw and pastries milk
3. Starter culture organism
4. Microbiology of dairy products (cheese ,yoghurt condense milk
5. Milk borne diseases and pathogens transmitted through milk and dairy products
6. Estimation of microbes in milk (MBRT) test, direct microscopes counts (DMC) test, stander plate count, coli form count, yeast and mould count)
7. Indicator systems used to determine sanitary quality of milk products
|Name of course||Credit hours||Contact hours|
|Quality control of Dairy Products||3(2+1)||5|