Undergraduate Programs .Dairy

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Lactation physiology:

Mammary gland types and development

Hormonal control of mammary gland development

Stages of M.G. development (puberty- pregnancy – lactation) 

Hormonal control of milk- let-down

Control of initiation, maintenance and cessation of lactation

 Hormonal and nutrient in milk production

Milk precursor and synthesis of milk constituent

Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, protein, and fat

 The functional anatomy of the mammary secretary cell, function of different organelle

The udder development, supportive, structure, Blood supply – nervous and lymphatic systems  

Lactation curve and persistency

Milking programs and concept of machine milking in dairy cattle

Mammary involution

Artificial induction of lactation 

Reproductive Physiology


·        Functional anatomy of female Rep. System-  prenatal and post natal development of the Rep. organs and their specific sexual functions

·        Endocrinology of Rep. in the female

·        Hypophysial  hormones - Gonadal  steroid hormones and placental hormones – their chemical structures - functions and mechanism of action

·        Prostaglandins and synthetic hormones

·        Hormonal interrlationships 

·        Neuro endocrinology of Reproduction- Hypothalamus  neurohypophysis  and pineal gland 

·        Reproductive life cycles  - fetal and neonatal

      Puberty – adult sexuality – aging and fertility

·        Follicuogenesis  egg- maturation and ovulation

·        Transport and survival of gametes – sperm transport in the female reproductive tract – ova pickup   and their transport  in the oviduct 

·        Gamete transport – conception rate – fertilizable life and aging of egg

·        Embryonic development in the Ovid duct

·        Fertilization – cleavage and implantation

·        Gestation – maternal physiology

·        Reproductive cycles in cattle – sheep – goats –camels and horses

·        Post-partum period management

·        Reproductive failures

·        Reproduction efficiency and techniques for its improvement

·        Male reproduction aspects – spermatogenesis   and sperm cap citation

·        Functional anatomy of testis and thermo-regulatory mechanism 

·        Biotechnology in reproduction   

Principles of Dairy Science

Course objectives: To introduce the fundamentals of dairy chemistry to students and to acquire laboratory skills.

Course content:

1- Definition of milk.

2- Composition of milk from deferent species (detailed composition of milk proteins, lipids, lactose vitamins and enzymes).

3- Food value of dairy products.

4- Factors influencing milk composition.

5- Physicochemical properties of milk.

6- Sampling and control of milk supply- rejection  and routine biological grading tests.

7-Laboratory milk and dairy products tests.

8- Dairy microbiology.

9- Control of milk supplies Tests of adulteration.


1-Physical properties of milk (colour,  refractive index, specific gravity ( density).

2-Chemical composition ( protein, lactose, lipids, total solids, Ash).

3-Control of milk supply tests (sensory, pH, 10 minute resazurin, rapid   acidity, sediment, alcohol, clot- on- boiling, titratable acidity).

4-Biological grading tests (Methylene blue,2 hr resazurin, plate count, microscopic count and Psychrotropic count).

5-Tests of adulteration (freezing point depression, formaldehyde , boric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, Iodophors, Lime Ca(OH),  Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate).

Dairy Technology (502)

Course objectives: To provide students with the key knowledge and practical skills in dairy processing.

Course content:

1- Milk production and processing in Sudan.

2- Dairy plant design, facilities and layout.

3- Milk handling in dairy plant( Reception, filtration, clarification, bactofugation homogenization and separation, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis).

4- Heat treatment of milk.

5- Equipment used to handle, process and distribute fluid milk and related dairy products.

6-Starter culture.

7-Dairy products processing (Cheese, cream, butter, yoghurt,

Ice milk products).

7-Sudanese fermented dairy products.

8- Cleaning and sanitization of dairy product (principles, practices and properties of detergents and sanitization).

9- The importance of water supply of dairy plant in personal hygiene and  dairy plant environment.

10-Packaging and handling of dairy products.


1- Dairy plant visits (dairy plant design, facilities, layout).

Dairy  plant sanitization, processing's (homogenization  cream

separation, pasteurization, sterilization).

2 - Dairy processing (Cream, butter, cheese and yoghurt, ice cream).

Quality Control of Dairy Products

*Current methods used to evaluate

 Dairy products with respect to plant economics and consumer safety

* Accurate procedure for chemical and biological testing

* Statistical approach to sampling

* HACCP concept

* Interpretation of HACCP programs for assuring product quality and safety

*Quality systems standards including ISO

* Good laboratory practice safety and precaution

*Milk legislation


1. Sampling and preservation of milk for chemical and physical examination

2.  Detection of preservatives in milk

3. Estimation of microbes in milk

4.  Microbiological quality tests

 5. Cleaning and sterilization of dairy equipment

6.  Visit to milk products factory

7. Visit to farms

Dairy Microbiology

1. Types of microorganisms present in milk

2. Microbial standards of raw and pastries milk

3. Starter culture organism

4. Microbiology of dairy products (cheese ,yoghurt condense milk 

5. Milk borne diseases and pathogens transmitted through milk and dairy products

6. Estimation of microbes in milk (MBRT) test, direct microscopes counts (DMC) test, stander plate count, coli form count, yeast and mould count)

7. Indicator systems used to determine sanitary quality of milk products      

Name of course Credit hours Contact hours
Reproductive Physiology 3(2+1) 5
Lactation physiology 3(2+1) 5
Dairy production 3(2+1) 5
Microbiology 3(2+1) 5
Dairy Technology 3(2+1) 5
Quality control of Dairy Products 3(2+1) 5
Total hours   30
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